What is Ortho and causes of malocclusions

Orthodontics is a special field of dentistry, which deals with the treatment of the malocclusion of the jawbone and the teeth. Teeth that are crooked or incorrectly positioned cannot fulfill numerous important tasks correctly. Thorough chewing is complicated or prevented, since the teeth don’t touch the opposite jawbone sufficiently or not at all.

This can be detrimental to optimal digestion and the periodontium is being strained too much because of the malocclusion, which in turn can lead to periodentosis and in the worst case to the premature loss of teeth. If the lips are not perfectly closed, breathing occurs mainly through the mouth, which can lead to the inadequate development of the nasal cavity and the throat. The consequences are speech disorders and a higher susceptibility to colds and sore throats. If the teeth are positioned too tightly, dirty nooks can be created, which in turn can cause cavities and inflammation of the gums.

Furthermore, many of our patients have their teeth corrected because of the social and emotional benefits. It is always a wonderful confirmation of our work, if the patients exhibit a self-confident, beautiful smile thanks to their orthodontic treatment.

Causes

Basically one distinguishes between hereditary and acquired malocclusions of the jaw, whereby there is usually a combination of acquired malocclusions and genetic dispositions. When it comes to innate malocclusions, the size of the upper and lower jaw are disproportionate to each other, or there are missing teeth, which can frequently lead to asymmetrical positioning of the teeth.

  At this patient the upper midline moved to the left, caused by a missing left lateral.
     
     

The acquired malocclusions are caused by bad habits such as thumb-sucking, prolonged use of the pacifier or compressing of the tongue. The sucking of the thumb, pacifiers and other objects, which continues after the child is three years old, can lead to severe deformations of the jaw and to malocclusions, especially of the front teeth. When it comes to the so called open sucking bite, the incisors of the upper and lower jaw gape apart, which makes it impossible to bite anything off.

 

  Pacifier-abusus of a child 4 years of age.
     
     

The importance of baby teeth is shown after their premature loss. If these „place-keepers“ are lost too early e.g. as a result of cavities, the first permanent teeth are filling in these gaps and block the later teeth from coming through. The consequences can be positioning of the teeth that is too tight or teeth that are crooked.

  Blocked out cuspits because of crowding and maybe also because of early loss of milk teeth.
     
  milk-tooth decay and consequences